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You will learn in this lesson: Arabic pronouns, subject pronouns, object pronouns in Arabic, determinative possessive, and prepositional pronouns. Arabic independent possessive.


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Arabic Subject Pronouns:

In Arabic the subject pronoun is more specific than many other languages, for example there are different ways to say “you” in Arabic depending on who you’re addressing it to, for example to address 2 people you use a subject pronoun different than the one you would use for a single person, also if you’re addressing more than two people you will have to use a different form for that as well. Finally most of subject pronouns have a feminine and a masculine form. The table below shows the different forms you may come across:

 

Arabic Subject Pronouns

Singular

Dual

Plural

I   أنا  Ana

 

you (singular masculine.)   أنتَ Anta

 

you (singular feminine)     أنتِ  Anti

  

he   هو Howa

 

she هي Hiya

 

you (dual male or female) أنتُما  Antuma

 

they (dual male or female) هُما  Humaa

 

We  نحن Nahn

 

you (plural masculine)  أنتُم Antum

 

you (plural feminine)  أنتُن Antun

 

they (plural masculine)  هُم Hum

 

they (plural feminine)  هُن Hun

 

 

To say for example I’m a boy = Ana walad! (Ana = I, walad = boy) as you may have noticed “am” and “a” are omitted in Arabic, so it’s like saying “I boy”, same thing with all other subject pronouns. He is a boy = Howa walad (he boy), we’re boys = Nahnu* Awlad (we boys),

You may also have noticed that Arabic has a “dual” form,  meaning that Arabic is being more specific about not only the gender but also the number, so the dual form is used to refer to two people, if you want to talk to Speak7 and Karim to tell them: you both speak Arabic! =  Antuma tatakallamani al ‘arabia انتما تتكلّمان العربية , if you want to talk about them: they both speak Arabic = Humaa yatakalamani al ‘arabia هما يتكلمان العربية .

For the plural there are five subject pronouns, We = Nahn (for females and males). You = Antum (when you talk to 3 males or more, or one male and the 2 females or more)

You = Antun (when you talk to 3 females or more). They = Hum (when you talk about 3 males or more, or one male and the 2 females or more). They = Hun (when you talk about 3 females or more).

* Some subject pronouns take an extra vowel at the end when they’re followed by other words, to make the pronunciation smooth and easy, just like when you add an “n” to the indefinite article “a” to some words, “an umbrella” instead of “a umbrella” to make it easier to pronounce, same thing in Arabic, we add either “u” or “a” to many words to make them go in harmony with other words following them, we will go through that later, but for now you can keep using the articles without these vowels especially because you will be still understood even without adding them.

 

Arabic Object Pronouns:

Object pronouns in Arabic are me, you, him, her, us, you (plural) and come after a verb; In Arabic they’re as follows:

 

Arabic Object Pronouns

Singular

Dual

Plural

Me: verb+ni  ني

 

You (masculine): verb+k   كََ

 

You (feminine): verb+ki    كِ

 

Him: verb+h  ه ،  ـه

 

Her: verb+ha  ها

 

You (dual male or female): verb+kumaa  كُما

 

Them (dual male or female): verb+humaa هُما

 

We: verb+naa  نا

 

You (plural masculine): verb+kum   كُم

 

You (plural feminine): verb+kun  كُن

 

Them (plural masculine): verb+hum  هُم

 

Them (plural feminine): verb+hun هُن

 

 

So to say in Arabic “you show me”, after conjugating the verb and adding the “you” to it, you need to add the object pronoun “me” to it as well, note that “you show me” in Arabic is written like “youshowme” meaning that the subject pronoun + the verb + the object pronoun are all connected, “you” as a prefix and “me” as a suffix of the verb “show”, so it would be (you show me = turini تُريني ) (you show us = turina ترينا )  (you show him = turih تريه ). Try to memorize these Arabic Pronouns, as they’re very important.


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Arabic Determinative Possessive Pronouns:

Similar to the Arabic object pronouns, the determinative possessive pronouns look the same, the only difference is that they end a noun and not a verb like above. So to learn how to say “my house” “his car” “her dress” …you need to look at the table below:

 

Arabic Determinative Possessive Pronouns

Singular

Dual

Plural

Me: noun+i  ي

 

You (masculine): noun+k   كََ

 

You (feminine): noun+ki    كِ

 

Him: noun+h  ه ،  ـه

 

Her: noun+ha  ها

 

You (dual male or female): noun+kumaa  كُما

 

Them (dual male or female): noun+humaa هُما

 

We: noun+naa  نا

 

You (plural masculine): noun+kum   كُم

 

You (plural feminine): noun+kun  كُن

 

Them (plural masculine): noun+hum  هُم

 

Them (plural feminine): noun+hun هُن

 

 

In Arabic you have to use the possessive pronouns above as a suffix, meaning that they should be ending the word (noun), here are some examples:

Book = Kitab   كتاب    

My book = Kitabi                كتابي  

Your book = kitabuk كتابك 

Your book (singular female) = Kitabuki كتابك 

His book = Kitabuh   كتابه   

Her book = Kitabuha كتابها   

Your book (dual male or female) = Kitabukumaa كتابكما 

Their book (dual male or female) = Kitabuhumaa كتابهما 

Our book = Kitabuna كتابنا

Your book (plural masculine) = Kitabukum كتابكم

Your book (plural feminine) = Kitabukun كتابكن

Their book (plural masculine) = Kitabuhum كتابهم

Their book (plural feminine) = kitabuhun كتابهن 

 

So it’s very easy to use the possessive pronoun in Arabic, you just need to add the suffixes on the table above to the word, and that’s it.

 

Arabic Prepositional Pronouns: (to me, for you, about her …any pronoun with a preposition preceding it)

 

It’s easy to use the prepositional pronouns in Arabic; you just add the suffix below to the preposition, which looks exactly like the ones we learn before in the possessive object, above:

 

Arabic Prepositional Pronouns

Singular

Dual

Plural

Me: preposition+i  ي

 

You (masculine): preposition+k   كََ

 

You (feminine): preposition+ki    كِ

 

Him: preposition+h  ه ،  ـه

 

Her: preposition+ha  ها

 

You (dual male or female): preposition+kumaa  كُما

 

Them (dual male or female): preposition+humaa هُما

 

We: preposition+naa  نا

 

You (plural masculine): preposition+kum   كُم

 

You (plural feminine): preposition+kun  كُن

 

Them (plural masculine): preposition+hum  هُم

 

Them (plural feminine): preposition+hun هُن

 

 

So to say “come to me” we would add the prepositional pronoun “me = i” to the Arabic preposition “to = ila”, so “come to me = taala ilai = تعال إلي

Said to me = qaal li قال لي   .

 

Arabic Independent Possessive Pronouns:

In Arabic the independent possessive pronoun is used to express “mine, yours, hers….”

Example: the book is mine: al kitab li الكتاب لي, the drink is ours: al mashroob lana المشروب لنا . The table below shows the independent possessive pronouns:

 

Arabic Independent Possessive Pronouns

Singular

Dual

Plural

Mine   li  لي

 

yours (sing masculine) lak  لك

 

yours (singular feminine) laki  لك

  

his  lah   له

 

hers  laha لها

 

yours (dual male or female) lakumaa  لكما

 

theirs (dual male or female) lahumaa   لهما

 

Ours  lana لنا

 

yours (plural masculine) lakum لكم

 

yours (plural feminine) lakun لكن

 

theirs (plural masculine) lahum لهم

 

theirs (plural feminine) lahun لهن

 

 

You can also use the word “milk” to form independent possessive, the word milk ملك means “property of” …, the book is mine (my property) = al kitaabu milki الكتاب ملكي, but I would suggest to use the pronouns on the table above which is easier and more used.

 

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